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Children with CAS represent a very interesting and yet challenging population of children with speech disorders. An urgent need exists for research into all aspects of the disorder. However, in the interim, the literature and clinical expertise does offer some guidance toward appropriate and effective diagnosis and treatment.

Unlike several years ago, today speech-language pathologists have avenues to pursue information, education and guidance in their professional involvement with children with have CAS. Resources such as the Apraxia-KIDS website and the Childhood Apraxia of Speech Associationof North America are leading the way toward high quality, reputable information and educational resources. For more in-depth information on Childhood Apraxia of Speech, readers are encouraged to visit the online Apraxia-KIDS Library, which houses the most extensive collection of original articles related to CAS.

Thank you for your time and effort in learning how best to support children with apraxia and their families.


Caruso, A.J., and Strand, E. A. (1999) Clinical Management of Motor Speech Disorders in Children. New York: Thieme.

Cumley, G. D.; Swanson, S. (1999) Augmentative and alternative communication options for children with developmental apraxia of speech: three case studies. Augmentative and Alternative Communication, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 110.

Davis, B. L.; Velleman, S. L. (2000). Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Developmental Apraxia of Speech in Infants and Toddlers. Infant Toddler Intervention, 2000, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 177-192.

Forrest. K. (2003) Diagnostic criteria of development apraxia of speech used by clinical speech-language pathologists. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 12(3), pp. 376 – 380.

Gibbon, F. Stewart, F., Hardcastle, W.J. and Crampin, L. (1999) Widening access to electropalatography for children with persistent sound system disorders. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 8, 319-334.

Hammer, D. and Robin, D.A. (2003) “Childhood Apraxia of Speech: Assessment, Treatment & Current Issues”, a Hendrix Foundation/CASANA workshop presented in San Diego, CA.

Hall, P. K., Jordan, L.S. and Robin, D. A. (1993) Developmental Apraxia of Speech: Theory and Clinical Practice. Austin, TX: ProEd.

Lewis BA. Freebairn LA. Hansen AJ. Iyengar SK. Taylor HG. (2004) School-age follow-up of children with childhood apraxia of speech. Language, Speech & Hearing Services in the Schools. 35(2):122-40.

Maassen B. (2002). Issues contrasting adult acquired versus developmental apraxia of speech. Semin Speech Lang;23(4):257-266.

Maassen, B. (2004) Speech output disorders. In Verhoeven, L. and van Balkom, H. (Eds.) Classification of developmental language disorders. Mahway, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

McNeil, M. R. (Ed.). (1997). Clinical management of sensorimotor speech disorders. New York, NY: Theime.

Odell K. H.; Shriberg L. D. (2001) Prosody-voice characteristics of children and adults with apraxia of speech. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 275-307.

Shriberg, L.D. and Campbell, T.F. (Eds.) (2003). Proceedings of the 2002 childhood apraxia of speech research symposium. Carlsbad, CA: The Hendrix Foundation.

Shriberg LD. Campbell TF. Karlsson HB. Brown RL. McSweeny JL. Nadler CJ. (2003) A diagnostic marker for childhood apraxia of speech: the lexical stress ratio. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. 17(7):549-74.

Shriberg LD. Green JR. Campbell TF. McSweeny JL. Scheer AR. (2003) A diagnostic marker for childhood apraxia of speech: the coefficient of variation ratio. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics. 17(7):575-95.

Stackhouse, J. and Wells, B. (1997) Children’s speech and literacy difficulties: a psycholinguistic framework. San Diego, CA: Singular.

Strand, E. A., and Debertine, P. (2000). The efficacy of integral stimulation intervention with developmental apraxia of speech. Journal of Medical Speech Language Pathology, vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 295-300.

Strand, E.A. and Stoeckel, R. (2004) “Differential Diagnosis and Treatment of Childhood Apraxia of Speech”, a Hendrix Foundation/CASANA workshop presented in St. Paul, MN.

Thoonen G., Maassen B., Gabreels F., Schreuder R. (1999) Validity of maximum performance tasks to diagnose motor speech disorders in children. Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, vol. 13, no. 1, pp. 1-23.

Velleman, S.L. (2003). Childhood apraxia of speech resource guide. Clifton Park, NY: Delmar Learning.