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In depth articles about diagnosis, speech therapy, and intervention for children with apraxia of speech...

  • A Comparison of the Use of Low-Tech and High-Tech Communication Systems for Children with CAS

    By
    Korey L. Stading M.S., CCC-SLP Munroe-Meyer Institute, RiteCare Clinic University of Nebraska Medical Center and Amy S. Nordness Ph.D, CCC-SLP Madonna Rehabilitation Hospital

    BACKGROUND Children diagnosed with childhood apraxia of speech (CAS) struggle to communicate basic needs to even those closest to them. In addition to severely unintelligible speech, CAS is often accompanied by language and literacy deficits, academic difficulties, deficits in phonological processing and literacy, and social disadvantages (ASHA, 2007; Lewis, Freebairn, Hansen, Stein, Shriberg, Iyengar, et […]

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  • Will My Child Ever Learn to Say the “R” Sound?

    By
    Penelope Hall, M.A., CCC-SLP

    “Will my child ever learn to make the “r” sound?” This is a question I hear from many parent(s) of children with CAS, likely reflecting very real parental concerns about how their child’s speech will sound as they enter the teen years, or even young adulthood. The question is a logical one. The answer is […]

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  • Will my child benefit from using “X” (a specific technique or program) in therapy?

    By
    Ruth Stoeckel, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

    Variations of this question are often posted on the Apraxia -KIDS listserv or asked during workshops or educational talks about apraxia. Based on the limited research evidence we have for treatment of apraxia, the short answer to this question is that the method itself may be less important that assuring the needed intensity of services […]

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  • Why Is There Reluctance to Try AAC With Children Who Have Apraxia?

    By
    Gary Cumley, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

    My research has focused on determining the effect AAC has on the communication quality and quantity of children diagnosed with CAS or suspected CAS. Trying to determine why professionals and parents are reluctant to introduce AAC to this population is of great interest to me. Professionals and parents have the same goal for these children […]

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  • Why is Dysarthria, as a Diagnosis, Often Missed in Children and What Distinguishes it from Apraxia?

    By
    Michael Crary, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

    Dysarthria is by traditional definition a motor speech disorder that results from direct motor impairment to the muscles of speech production. This impairment may be from damage to the central portions of the nervous system contributing to a spastic paresis, from the peripheral portions of the nervous system contributing to flaccid paresis, or to the […]

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  • Why Do Children Refuse or Resist Participation in Speech Therapy?

    By
    Tracy Vail, M.S., CCC-SLP

    I think it’s really valuable when professionals and parents make a shift in their thinking, where the question changes from “Why won’t my child participate in therapy?” to “What do I need to do to change the environment so the child wants to learn?” The responsibility for teaching any skill then becomes the responsibility of […]

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  • What is Neuroplasticity and Why Do Parents and SLPs Need To Know?

    By
    Megan Hodge, Ph.D., R.SLP, CCC-SLP

    Neuroplasticity refers to the brain’s ability to change (organize and reorganize) its structure as a result of internal (genetic) factors, as well as external (experiential) factors that lead to new learning. Examples of these kinds of changes in brain structure are increases or decreases in: 1) connections among neurons, the main type of brain cells, […]

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  • What Does the Research Say Regarding Oral Motor Exercises and the Treatment of Speech Sound Disorders

    By
    Gregory L. Lof, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

    The vast majority of the legitimate research shows no changes in speech sound productions because of non-speech oral motor exercises. However, many clinicians have strong opinions about their efficacy by stating clinical anecdotes, or they will cite non-peer reviewed publications and CEU events that claim there are speech benefits of these exercises. Literature searches of […]

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  • What are some challenges facing SLP’s in making a diagnosis of CAS?

    By
    Ruth Stoeckel, MA, CCC-SLP, Mayo Clinic

    There is much yet to be learned about CAS as a disorder and how best to arrive at a differential diagnosis. This is especially true for children who are younger than 2 ½-3 years of age, because these children are still in a stage of rapid growth and change. Attempting to determine if a child […]

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  • What About Children Who Don’t Quite Meet the “Threshold” for a Diagnosis of CAS?

    By
    Rebecca McCauley, Ph.D., CCC-SLP

    An unknown number of children may fail to be diagnosed with CAS because of the circumstances surrounding their evaluation or because they have problems that are closely related to CAS, but don’t meet a threshold for diagnosis. This group may, for example, include children who are too young to participate fully in testing, who have […]

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