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Reading and Other Literacy Related Resources

Reportedly, children with apraxia and other severe speech sound disorders are at higher risk of literacy-related difficulties. Use the links below to learn more about the way children learn to read. Included are links on learning to read, phonemic and phonological awareness and specific reading approaches and programs.

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The Connection Between Speech Disorders and Literacy Problems

Literacy: How Speech-language Pathologists Can Help
From the American Speech Language Hearing Association

Speech and language disorders and their effect on learning.
By Brigid Clifton, speech language pathologist, St. Catherines School

Language Based Learning Disabilities
From the American Speech Language Hearing Association
Language-based learning disabilities interfere with age-appropriate reading, spelling, and/or writing. This disorder does not impair intelligence; in fact, most people diagnosed with learning disabilities possess average to superior intelligence.

Understanding the Importance of Phonemic and Phonological Awareness

The relationships among phonological processing, orthographic processing, and lexical development in children with reading disabilities.

Helping Children Learn “Phonemic AND Graphemic” Awareness
by Myrna T. McCulloch
The Riggs Institute

The Structure of Phonemic Awareness
by Philip B. Gough and Kevin C. Larson

Phonological Awareness: Instructional and Assessment Guidelines
David J. Chard and Shirley V. Dickson
May 1999
Intervention in School and Clinic.

Straight Talk About Reading: How Parents Can Make a Difference During The Early Years
by Susan L. Hall and Louisa C. Moats, Ed.D.

Multisensory Structured Language Programs: Content & Principles of Instruction
Clinical Studies of Multisensory Structured Language Education for Students with Dyslexia and Related Disorders
Curtis W. McIntyre, Ph.D. and Joyce S. Pickering, LSH/CCC, MA, editors, 1995.
Phonics and Word Recognition Instruction in Early Reading Programs: Guidelines for Accessibility
David J. Chard University of Texas at Austin Jean Osborn Center for the Study of Reading University of Illinois

On the Road to Reading – A Guide for Community Partners How Tutors Can Support Young Readers (continued) Tutoring Strategies for the Primary Grades

Phonological Awareness Activities
From the PALS project, activities for beginning sounds, rhyme, blending, etc.

Specific Reading Programs

Lindamood-Bell
Lindamood-Bell “pioneered programs to develop the sensory-cognitive processes that underlie reading, spelling, language comprehension, math, and visual motor skills. Our Process-Based education programs are for individuals ranging from severely learning disabled to academically giftedages 5 years through adult. It is our mission to maximize the potential of every person to reason and communicate; we meet our goals with intelligence, integrity, and humor.”

Wilson Reading Program
A structured, multisensory curriculum for teaching decoding and encoding (spelling) beginning with phoneme segmentation. WRS directly teaches the structure of words in the English language so that students master the coding system for reading and spelling.

Orton-Gillingham Program
The Institute for Multi-sensory Education (IMSE) offers phonetic, sequential, and multi-sensory programs for teachers and parents to use to enhance children’s skills in reading, spelling, and writing. Includes use at home programs to be implemented by parents.

Picture me reading
A visual-conceptual approach for early literacy, teaching the ABC’s as well as sight words. Should be used in conjunction with other programs. Includes pictograph cards. The picture embedded in the letter or word is just an aid to inital learning which helps the student recall the word when the picture clue is removed.

Reading Reflex (Phono-Graphix)
Developed by Read America

Writing and Spelling Road to Reading and Thinking: A Neurolinguistic Approach to Cognitive Development & English Literacy
The Riggs Institute Method