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Apraxia, Hypernasality and Velophayrngeal Incompetence

What is hypernasality and VPI?
from Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, by John E. Riski, Ph.D.

How To Develop Your Non-Instrumental Clinical Skills for Assessing Velopharyngeal Function
from Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, by John E. Riski, Ph.D.

Fact Sheet: Hypernasality: A Treatable Speech Disorder
From the American Academy of Otolayrngology

Velopharyngeal insufficiency
In describing the problem of hypernasal speech, differentiation between velopharyngeal mislearning, velopharyngeal incompetency, and velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI) is important.
From EMedicine

Treatment of Velopharyngeal Insufficiency
Using speech instrumentation to help children with velopharyngeal insufficiency (VPI)

Also see the Apraxia-KIDS article:
“Do children with apraxia often have velopharyngeal problems or other structural issues that impede their speech?”
by Karen J. Golding-Kushner, Ph.D., CCC-SLP